The 16-year-old got into the Maruti Alto car on Sunday after she was offered a lift. The police say the driver drugged her before raping her and then drove home, where he left the girl in his car.
She was found several hours later by the police, who were searching for the teen after she was reported missing by her parents.
The man who has been arrested works as a manager at a hospital in Noida.
Attacks on women in and around Delhi have topped the national agenda since December, when a medical student was assaulted and raped, allegedly by six men, on a moving bus in the capital. She died two weeks later of severe injuries inflicted on her during an attack so vicious that it stunned the doctors who attended to her.
Seething with anger and grief, students led protests in the capital and other cities, forcing the government to introduce tough new laws to punish sexual crimes against women. The revised laws recognize voyeurism and stalking as criminal offences, and controversially provide for the death penalty for rapes which leave the victim dead or in a coma.